Organizational Models

Common organizational models include the centralized, decentralized, and Hub-and-spoke models. While your organization may benefit from any of these approaches, this Playbook includes targeted guidance for leveraging the Hub-and-spoke approach. In this model, the “Hub” refers to a central group of leaders, including C-level members, who establish standards, processes, and policies. “Spokes” are business units or functional teams that oversee execution of the organization’s policies and processes.

Hub-and-spoke models have a proven track record. They have typically worked well for implementing other organization-wide priority areas, such as privacy, security, and accessibility. A significant strength of the Hub-and-spoke model is that it enables collaboration across organizational components and roles.

Establish a Central Hub

In Play 3: Identify and Categorize Stakeholders and Play 4: Establish Principles and Ownership, we offer specific guidance for identifying your stakeholders and establishing a staffed “Hub” that can provide leadership, guidance, and coordination for your initiative. The existence and specific names of the following components and roles will vary based on your organization’s size, maturity, and other factors.

Link to accessible chart and text-only version

Stakeholder Roles

There are four stakeholder categories to consider when putting in place your Equitable AI Initiative: Advisors, Champions, Implementers, and Impacted End Users. Use these stakeholder categories to implement Play 3: Identify and Categorize Stakeholders. Each are described below, and see this resource for more guidance: Staffing for Equitable AI: Roles & Responsibilities.


Advisors are senior executives, business managers, and technology leaders who will build, lead, and advise your organization’s Equitable AI initiative. Advisors can help shape your initiative, connect it to other strategic programs, determine a governance strategy, review outcomes, and support effective cultural change. Advisors can include Boards of Directors, CEOs, C-Level Executives, Chief AI Ethics Officers, and other staff charged with setting policies, developing policy implementation resources, establishing governance mechanisms, and developing communication, training, and professional development.


Champions are senior executives, managers, and influencers who will promote the Equitable AI initiative across your organization. Champions will lend their voice and serve as “spokespeople” for your initiative, helping employees understand and adopt practices required to implement Equitable AI. Champions can include Employee Resource Groups, Diversity/Equity/Inclusion (DEI) Initiatives, Digital Accessibility Programs, HR/Training/Professional Development, Procurement, Legal/Risk/Compliance, and others who will promote Equitable AI in specific departments or business units.


Implementers are people responsible for executing your Equitable AI processes and procedures on a day-to-day basis. This includes internal staff who will plan, procure, design, configure, integrate, monitor, and support AI technologies your organization deploys. Implementers can also include contractors and external consultants helping with AI implementations.

Impacted End Users

Impacted end users are people who ultimately use (or are intended to use) AI technologies that your organization adopts. End users can ultimately benefit from your organization’s Equitable AI implementations. End users might include employees performing their jobs, as well as prospective employees, customers or business partners who are accessing your organization’s AI implementations. It is important to gather input from these groups of end users and ensure their needs are considered when planning or implementing Equitable AI.

Continue to Play 1: Build a business case